Today we’re celebrating the birthday of John Backus (3 Dec 1924 – 28 Oct 1988), American computer scientist and the leader of the team who invented the Fortran programming language (at the time called FORTRAN) while working at IBM in the mid 1950s.
Fortran was the first so-called ‘high-level computer language’, which means it was capable of converting standard mathematical formulas and English-based expressions into binary code used by computers. The language is particularly suited to scientific computing and numeric computation. Over the years, many improvements were made to the original Fortran language, with versions known by a sometimes strange series of numeric identifiers – FORTRAN, FORTRAN II, FORTRAN III, FORTRAN IV, FORTRAN 66, FORTRAN 77, Fortran 90, Fortran 2003 and Fortran 2008.
Despite being one of the oldest computer languages, it has been one of the most enduring, and after more than half a century it is still a preferred language for computationally intensive applications such as weather prediction, computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis. One of the reasons for Fortran’s longevity is that some of the later Fortran compilers in particular are capable of generating very fast and efficient code, which can make a big difference when solving large, complex mathematical computations. It is still the primary language for used on many supercomputers, and many of the floating-point benchmarks to test the performance of new processors are still written in Fortran.
As a high-level language, Fortran has also provided an impetus for the development of numerous subsequent computer languages such as ALGOL, COBOL and BASIC.
The IEEE awarded John Backus the W.W. McDowell Award in 1967 for the development of FORTRAN. He also received the National Medal of Science in 1975 and the ACM Turing Award in 1977 for his contributions to the design of high-level computer programming systems.